Charles Poliquin put up an article that I found interesting the other day. "Increase Sprint Performance with Heavy Weight Complex." In it he references this research study, about 4rm squat 9 minutes before a 100 meter sprint.
They had two groups, both ran their first 100 meter sprint, then the second sprint had a changing variable. The second sprint came 9 minutes later. The variable group performed a 4 rep max parallel back squat before the second sprint. There was on average a .19 improvement in time. Pretty significant.
It appears that performing a 4rm squat followed by enough time to recover, improves the ability to sprint over short distance. It would be interesting to see if this is something that could be used on Elite sprinters for improvement.